A dumper is a vehicle designed for carrying bulk material, often on building sites. Dumpers are distinguished from dump trucks by configuration: a dumper is usually an open 4-wheeled vehicle with the load skip in front of the driver, while a dump truck has its cab in front of the load. The skip can tip to dump the load; this is where the name "dumper" comes from. They are normally diesel powered. A towing eye is fitted for secondary use as a site tractor. Dumpers with rubber tracks are used in special circumstances and are popular in some countries.
Early Thwaites dumpers had a payload of about a ton and were 2-wheel drive, driving on the front axle and steered at the back wheels. The single cylinder diesel engine (sometimes made by Lister) was started by hand cranking. The steering wheel turned the back wheels, not front. Having neither electrics nor hydraulics there was not much 0to go wrong. The skip was secured by a catch by the driver's feet. When the catch is released, the skip tips under the weight of its contents at pivot points below, and after being emptied is raised by hand.
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