Directional boring, commonly called horizontal directional drilling or HDD, is a steerable trenchless method of installing underground pipe, conduit, or cable in a shallow arc along a prescribed bore path by using a surface-launched drilling rig, with minimal impact on the surrounding area. Directional boring is used when trenching or excavating is not practical. It is suitable for a variety of soil conditions and jobs including road, landscape and river crossings.
Pipe can be made of materials such as PVC, polyethylene, polypropylene, ductile iron, and steel as long as it can be pulled through the drilled hole. Directional boring is not practical if there are voids in the rock or incomplete layers of rock. The best material is solid rock or sedimentary material. Soils with cobblestone are not recommended. There are different types of heads used in the pilot-hole process, and they depend on the geological material.
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